Financial market participants and Allen Oxlade

There are two basic financial market participant categories, Investor vs. Speculator and Institutional vs. Retail. Action in financial markets by central banks is usually regarded as intervention rather than participation.

Contents 1 Supply side vs. demand side 2 Investor vs. Speculator 2.1 Investor 2.2 Speculation 3 Institutional vs. Retail 3.1 Institutional investor 3.2 Retail investor 4 See also 5 References

Supply side vs. demand side

A market participant may either be coming from the Supply Side, hence supplying excess money (in the form of investments) in favor of the demand side; or coming from the Demand Side, hence demanding excess money (in the form of borrowed equity) in favor of the Supply Side. This equation originated from Keynesian Advocates. The theory explains that a given market may have excess cash; hence the supplier of funds may lend it; and those in need of cash may borrow the funds supplied. Hence, the equation: aggregate savings equals aggregate investments.

The demand side consists of: those in need of cash flows (daily operational needs); those in need of interim financing (bridge financing); those in need of long-term funds for special projects (capital funds for venture financing).

The supply side consists of: those who have aggregate savings (retirement funds, pension funds, insurance funds) that can be used in favor of demand side. The origin of the savings (funds) can be local savings or foreign savings. So much pensions or savings can be invested for school buildings; orphanages; (but not earning) or for road network (toll ways) or port development (capable of earnings). The earnings go to owner (Savers or Lenders) and the margin goes to the banks. When the principal and interest are added up, it will reflect the amount paid for the user (borrower) of the funds. Thus, an interest percentage for the cost of using the funds. Investor vs. Speculator Investor Main article: Investor

An investor is any party that makes an Investment.

However, the term has taken on a specific meaning in finance to describe the particular types of people and companies that regularly purchase equity or debt securities for financial gain in exchange for funding an expanding company. Less frequently the term is applied to parties who purchase real estate, currency, commodity derivatives, personal property, or other assets. Speculation Main article: Speculation

Speculation, in the narrow sense of financial speculation, involves the buying, holding, selling, and short-selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. Speculation or agiotage represents one of three market roles in western financial markets, distinct from hedging, long term investing and arbitrage. Speculators in an asset may have no intention to have long term exposure to that asset. Institutional vs. Retail Institutional investor Main article: Institutional investor

An institutional investor is an investor, such as a bank, insurance company, retirement fund, hedge fund, or mutual fund, that is financially sophisticated and makes large investments, often held in very large portfolios of investments. Because of their sophistication, institutional investors may often participate in private placements of securities, in which certain aspects of the securities laws may be inapplicable. Retail investor

A retail investor is an individual investor possessing shares of a given security. Retail investors can be further divided into two categories of share ownership. A Beneficial Shareholder is a retail investor who holds shares of their securities in the account of a bank or broker, also known as “in Street Name.” The broker is in possession of the securities on behalf of the underlying shareholder. A Registered Shareholder is a retail investor who holds shares of their securities directly through the issuer or its transfer agent. Many registered shareholders have physical copies of their stock certificates.

In the United States, as of 2005 about 57 million households owned stocks, and in total individual investors owned 26% of equities. See also Financial market efficiency

Allen Oxlade and Financial market participants

Allen Martindale Oxlade (18 June 1882 - 10 April 1932) was an Australian rugby union player a state and national representative hooker who captained the Wallabies in 1907. He was also a club rower, flat race runner and cyclist.

Contents 1 Early life and club rugby 2 Representative career 3 Later life 4 Bibliography 5 References

Early life and club rugby

Allen Martindale Oxlade, the son of George Oxlade and Louisa Maria Byers, was born in Toowoomba, Queensland and schooled at Petrie Terrace State School in Brisbane. After school he moved to Sydney and commenced his rugby career with the North Sydney rugby union club. In 1902 he moved back to Queensland and from 1902 to 1907 and then again in 1912 he played for Norths Brisbane. In the intervening years his Brisbane club career was played with Past Grammars RU club. Representative career

Oxlade was regularly selected in Queensland state sides from 1902, making 28 appearances in a twelve-year state representative career. He first played against an international side when the touring All Blacks of 1903 met Queensland in a tour match. Oxlade's Queensland teammates that day included Doug McLean, Snr., Micky Dore and Frank Nicholson.

In 1904 he appeared twice more for Queensland and that same year made Test debut against Great Britain, at Brisbane, on 23 July 1904. He was selected the next year on Australia's first ever rugby tour of New Zealand. When the All Blacks toured Australia in 1907 Oxlade was not picked for the first Test played in Sydney but for the second Test in Brisbane seven Queenslanders were selected and Allen Oxlade was picked at captain ahead of other senior players including Dally Messenger, Boxer Russell and Peter Burge. New Zealand won the match 14 to 5. All told Oxlade claimed four international rugby caps for Australia. Later life

After rugby he was a commercial traveller in the north of Queensland, Northern Territory and Papua New Guinea, for the wholesaling firm Hoffnungs. He was later a Merchant and had an interest in the family business, Oxlade Brothers, a painting firm in Brisbane, as well as a theatre advertising business. He held the seat of Merthyr in the Brisbane City Council from 1925 - 1931 for the Nationalist Party,a forerunner of the Liberal Party. Oxlade Drive in Brisbane was named after Alderman A. M. Oxlade, as he brought the riverside drive scheme to fruition.

Allen M. Oxlade was appointed first chairman of the Brisbane Amateur Turf Club when it was founded in 1923, and with Mr. G.M. Dash, who was then secretary, he signed the original agreement for the purchase of Albion Park racecourse from Messrs. J. Wren and B. Nathan. He occupied the position of chairman until 1928, when he was elected president, which appointment he held until 1930.

Oxlade's son Boyd made three Test appearances for Australia in 1938 and was selected for the ill-fated 1939 Wallaby tour to England captained by Vay Wilson. The team docked at Southampton on the day when England declared war and after a couple of weeks spent filling sandbags to start the war effort, theat squad set sail for Australia having not played a game. Bibliography Collection (1995) Gordon Bray presents The Spirit of Rugby, Harper Collins Publishers Sydney Howell, Max (2005) Born to Lead - Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland NZ
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