Scedosporium prolificans and Kentucky Afield

Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes a wide variety of infections in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people and animals. Originally named Lomentospora prolificans in 1974, it was transferred to the genus Scedosporium in 1991. It is resistant to most antifungal drugs and infections are often fatal. Successful control of disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection can be obtained with a combination of voriconazole and terbinafine, but some strains are resistant to this treatment. Drugs that might also be of help are posaconazole, miltefosine and albaconazole. Albaconazole is in Phase III clinical trials.

Contents 1 History 2 Appearance 3 Ecology 4 Human disease 5 Drug resistance 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History

The genus Lomentospora was erected by G. Hennebert and B.G. Desai in 1974 to accommodate a culture obtained from greenhouse soil originating from a forest in Belgium. The fungus, which they named Lomentospora prolificans, was thought incorrectly to be related to the genus Beauveria - a group of insect-pathogenic soil fungi affiliated with the Order Hypocreales. The genus name "Lomentospora" referred to the shape of the apex of the spore-bearing cell, which the authors interpreted to be a rachis resembling a bean pod of the sort constricted at each seed. The species epithet "prolificans" derived from the prolific nature of the mold's sporulation. The fungus was later independently described as Scedosporium inflatum by Malloch and Salkin in 1984 from a bone biopsy of the foot of a boy who had stepped on a nail. The species epithet "inflatum" referred to the characteristically swollen base of the spore-bearing cell which they recognized correctly to be an annelide. Malloch and Salkin did not observe a sexual state, however they recognized the fungus to be associated with the family Microascaceae, and suspected it to be allied with the genus Pseudallescheria. In 1991, Guého and De Hoog re-examined a set of cultures of Scedosporium-like fungi from clinical cases by careful morphological examination and the evaluation of DNA-DNA reassociation complementarity. Along with two strains from their own work, they found the cultures of Hennebert & Desai and Malloch & Salkin to constitute a single species which they confirmed to belong in the genus Scedosporium. Lomentospora prolificans was then transferred to Scedosporium as S. prolificans, and Scedosporium inflatum became a synonym. This synonymy has since been confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions. Despite this change, and even as recently as 2012, the name Scedosporium inflatum has continued to appear in the medical literature. Appearance

Scedosporium prolificans produces small, delicate annellides with a distinct basal swelling peculiar to this species and absent in the closely related species, Scedosporium apiospermum. Annellides necks become long and distinctly annellated with age. Annellides occur individually or in clusters irregularly along undifferentiated hyphae, frequently exhibiting a pronounced penicillate arrangement in older cultures. Conidia are smooth-walled, light to dark brown, 3–7 x 2–3 µm, accumulating in slime droplets at annelide apices. Colonies of S. prolificans are grey to brownish, spreading, with scant, cobweb-like aerial mycelium recalling a moth-eaten woolen garment. This species is sensitive to cycloheximide. As this species may be slow to emerge from clinical materials, specimens in which this agent is suspected often require an extended period of culture incubation (e.g., up to 4 weeks). Ecology

Scedosporium prolificans is a soil fungus, and has been found in the soils of ornamental plants and greenhouse plants. Along with other fungi, S. prolificans has been isolated from soils of Ficus benjamina and Brassaia actinophylla plantings in hospitals, suggesting that these materials have potential to serve as reservoirs of nosocomial fungal pathogens. Human disease

Scedosporium prolificans has been recognized as an agent of opportunistic human disease since the 1990s. This species is primarily associated with subcutaneous lesions arising from injury following "traumatic implantation" of the agent via contaminated splinters or plant thorns. The majority of S. prolificans infections in immunologically normal people remain localized, characteristically with bone or joint involvement. Disseminated infections from S. prolificans are largely limited to people with pre-existing immune impairment. Notably, S. prolificans exhibits varying tolerance to all currently available antifungal agents. This is particularly true of strains recovered from disseminated infections, and these infections carry a high mortality. Scedosporium prolificans has also been known to cause disseminated disease secondary to myeloblastic leukemic and following lung transplant. In otherwise healthy people, it was recorded as a cause of corneal infection following a lawn trimmer mishap, and bone infection following trauma. Drug resistance

Infections caused by S. prolificans are recognized to be difficult to treat due to the tendency of this species to exhibit resistance to many commonly used antifungal agents. Successful control of disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection can be obtained with a combination of voriconazole and terbinafine, but some strains are resistant to this treatment. Drugs that might also be of help are posaconazole, miltefosine and albaconazole. Albaconazole is in Phase III clinical trials. Notes ^ Osteomyelitis UAMH 5819 ^ Potted plant soil: UAMH 5735, UAMH 5736 ^ Greenhouse soil: UAMH 7149 ^ Corneal scraping: UAMH 8524

Kentucky Afield and Scedosporium prolificans

Kentucky Afield magazine, formerly Kentucky Happy Hunting Ground, is the official publication of the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. It is a quarterly periodical devoted to the fish and wildlife resources of Kentucky. The magazine covers a broad range of outdoor topics, including angling, hunting, conservation and land management. Department writers, biologists and artists produce Kentucky Afield. Readers should be aware of attempts to hijack or misrepresent the Kentucky Afield name. The only authorized entry points for the magazine web pages are: http://www.kyafield.com, or http://fw.ky.gov. The magazine does not have its own Facebook page. All department news feeds come through the department's main Facebook page site at http://www.facebook.com/kdfwr.

Contents 1 History 2 Format 3 Circulation 4 Editors and Artists 5 References

History

Kentucky Afield magazine began publishing as Kentucky Happy Hunting Ground magazine under the leadership of Editor Harry Towles in December 1945. The initial press run was 15,000 copies, with the subscription price set at 50 cents a year. The magazine was published bimonthly, or six times a year. The first issue featured a hunting dog on the cover, and a drawing of pioneer Daniel Boone in the upper left hand corner. In 1992, the magazine’s name changed to Kentucky Afield. The name change not only mirrored the names of the department’s television and radio shows, but it emphasized all the outdoors, not just hunting. Since 2000, staff artist Rick Hill has painted the covers of the magazine. The exception was 2004, when the magazine switched to photo covers while Hill painted “Kentucky Fish,” a department poster featuring 27 of the state’s most recognized fish. Kentucky Afield concentrates on hunting and fishing topics, emphasizing how-to articles, features on places to go, and helping readers to more fully enjoy their outdoor experiences. Format

Kentucky Afield is a 44-page, four-color publication. Standing one-page columns at the front and back of the magazine cover such topics as hunting, fishing, habitat, destinations, and ask the experts. The two-page center spread is set aside for Nature Notebook, an artist’s sketchbook of fish, animals, or behaviors. The magazine accepts advertising. Circulation

Kentucky Afield has more than 26,000 subscribers in 47 states. Editors and Artists

1992 – Spring 1994 – Editor - Norm Minch

Artist – John A. Boone

1992 - Rick Hill joins magazine staff as Artist

1995 - Editor – Norm Minch

Artists – John A. Boone, Rick Hill

1996 – 1999 - Editor – Carolyn Lynn

Artists – John A. Boone, Rick Hill

Mid 1999 – Editor – Norm Minch

Artist – Rick Hill

2000 - Editor – Norm Minch

2000 - Artist – Rick Hill

Rick Hill begins consecutive Cover Art for magazine

Summer 2000 – Lee McClellan starts as a staff writer

2001 – Present - Editor Dave Baker

Artist – Rick Hill
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