Dakar Département and Magistrates' Court of VictoriaMain article: DakarDakar Département is one of the Département of Senegal, located in the Dakar Region.The département of Dakar is one of the four départements of the Dakar région, which is one of the 11 régions of Senegal. The Dakar région encompasses the city of Dakar and all its suburbs along the Cape Verde Peninsula. Its territory is thus roughly the same as the territory of the metropolitan area of Dakar. Since the administrative reforms of 1996, the régions of Senegal, which until then were merely local administrative structures of the central state, have been turned into full-fledged political units, with democratically elected regional councils, and regional presidents. They were given extensive powers, and manage economic development, transportation, or environmental protection issues at the regional level, thus coordinating the actions of the communes below them.The département of Dakar is divided into four arrondissements: Almadies, Grand Dakar, Parcelles Assainies (which literally means "drained lots"; this is the most populous arrondissement of Dakar), and Plateau/Gorée (downtown Dakar). These arrondissements are quite different from the arrondissements of Paris, being merely local administrative structures of the central state, like the Senegalese départements, and are thus more comparable to French departmental arrondissements. MapIn 1996, a massive reform of the administrative and political divisions of Senegal was voted by the Parliament of Senegal. The commune of Dakar, whose population approached 1 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and too populated to be properly managed by a central municipality, and so on August 30, 1996 Dakar was divided into 19 communes d'arrondissement.These communes d'arrondissement were given extensive powers, and are very much like regular communes. They have more powers than the arrondissements of Paris, and are more akin to the London boroughs. The commune of Dakar was maintained above these 19 communes d'arrondissement, and it coordinates the activities of the communes d'arrondissement, much as Greater London coordinates the activities of the London boroughs.The 19 communes d'arrondissement belong to either of the four arrondissements of Dakar, and the sous-préfet of each arrondissement is in charge of controlling the activities of the communes d'arrondissement in his arrondissement.Dakar Département includes the commune d'arrondissement of Dakar-Plateau (34,626 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée, is the historical heart of the city, and most ministries and public administrations are located there. The densest and most populous commune d'arrondissement is Médina (136,697 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée. The smallest one is the commune d'arrondissement of Île de Gorée (1,034 inhabitants), in the arrondissement of Plateau/Gorée.
Magistrates' Court of Victoria and Dakar DépartementThe Magistrates' Court of Victoria is the lowest court in the Victorian court system, with the County Court of Victoria and the Supreme Court of Victoria respectively judicially higher. The Magistrates' Court is a court of summary jurisdiction.A typical courtroom layout consists of a witness box, a public gallery, the bar table (at which the parties sit), a raised bench for seating the sitting magistrate and a clerk and sometimes a dock for housing defendants in custody. Many Victorian magistrates' courts have video link facilities for witnesses to appear via remote video conference rather than in person and is used for when witnesses cannot travel or the prisoner is deemed too high-risk to travel to court in person.The Magistrates' Court of Victoria hears many different types of cases, such as: warrant application hearings; committal hearings and police prosecutions; bail application hearings; money claims and other civil disputes, not exceeding $100,000; family law and Family violence matters;All Magistrates are appointed as members of the Victims of Crime Assistance Tribunal (VOCAT), which is a separate and independent statutory entity which determines claims for compensation made by victims of crime and their families.Contents 1 History 1.1 Recent history 2 Courthouses 2.1 Metropolitan locations 2.2 Country locations 2.3 Closed metropolitan locations 2.4 Closed country locations 3 External links 4 ReferencesHistoryAlthough the current court was established by the Magistrates' Court Act 1989 (Victoria), Victoria has had magistrates since 1836, when the people of Melbourne elected an arbitrator of the city to resolve minor disputes. Captain William Lonsdale, a police magistrate, was appointed in 1836 and the first case was heard at a location near the present site of Southern Cross Station (formerly Spencer Street Station).In 1838, a third court, the Court of Petty Sessions was created. By 1890, all three types of courts were held at 235 locations throughout Victoria.On 20 January 1914, the new City Court was opened at Russell Street in Melbourne and Phillip Blashki JP was the first Chairman of the City Court Bench. The then Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin, presented Blashki with an illuminated address signed by 30 of the court's solicitors when he retired, aged 70.Police magistrates were able to sit in on Petty Court sessions, but generally two or three Justice of the Peace were required for cases to be heard. The Court of Petty Sessions, also originally attended to matters under 20 pounds, and even criminal matters, like drunkenness and minor assaults. Recent historyOn 29 May 2000, a Deed of Apology was signed for the treatment of Aboriginal peoples, which tied in with National Sorry Day actions, by the Chief Magistrate and Principal Registrar on behalf of the Magistrates' Court of Victoria. The deed was received at the Wangaratta courthouse by Wally Cooper.In 2000, Chief Magistrate of the Court Michael Adams was forced to stand down on 31 October after claims that he harassed female members of his court. This was reported on The 7.30 Report and also in the Melbourne newspapers, resulting in the extraordinary vote.The Chief Magistrate is currently Peter Lauritsen. The Chief Executive Officer is Andrew Tenni. The Principal Registrar is Simone Shields. Courthouses Metropolitan locations Melbourne Magistrates' Court, Melbourne Broadmeadows Magistrates' Court, Broadmeadows Dandenong Magistrates' Court, Dandenong Frankston Magistrates' Court, Frankston Heidelberg Magistrates' Court, Heidelberg Moorabbin Justice Centre, Highett Neighbourhood Justice Centre, Collingwood Ringwood Magsitrates' Court, Ringwood Sunshine Magistrates' Court, Sunshine Werribee Magistrates' Court, Werribee Country locations Ararat Bacchus Marsh Bairnsdale Ballarat Benalla Bendigo Castlemaine Cobram Colac Corryong Dromana Echuca Edenhope Geelong Hamilton Hopetoun Horsham Kerang Korumburra Kyneton Latrobe Valley, Morwell Mansfield Maryborough Mildura Moe Myrtleford Nhill Omeo Orbost Ouyen Portland Robinvale Sale Seymour Shepparton St Arnaud Stawell Swan Hill Wangaratta Warrnambool Wodonga Wonthaggi Closed metropolitan locations Ferntree Gully Magistrates' Court, Ferntree Gully (latitude: 37°53'17.55"S, longitude: 145°17'31.59"E; now owned by Knox Community Health Service) Box Hill Magistrates' Court Springvale Magistrates' Court Prahran Magistrates' Court Williamstown Magistrates' Court Moonee Ponds Magistrates' Court, Moonee Ponds Preston Magistrates' Court, Preston Closed country locations Kilmore Magistrates' Court Alexandra Magistrates' Court Yarrawonga Magistrates' Court Beechworth Magistrates' Court Warragul Magistrates' Court Yarram Magistrates' Court Lakes Entrance Magistrates' Court Casterton Magistrates' Court Warracknabeal Magistrates' Court Bright Magistrates' Court Euroa Magistrates' Court Leongatha Magistrates' Court Red Cliffs Magistrates' Court Cohuna Magistrates' Court Traralgon Magistrates' Court Nagambie Magistrates' Court External links Magistrates' Court of Victoria web site
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