Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw and Military Assistance Advisory GroupMuzeum Sztuki Nowoczesnej w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland. It was established in 2005.Until the construction of its new museum, the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw carries out its program activities in a temporary premises at ul. Pańska 3. The Director of the museum since June 6, 2007 has been Joanna Mytkowska.Contents 1 The construction of the new museum 2 Plans for the museum 3 See also 4 ReferencesThe construction of the new museumIn 2006, an international architectural competition for the design of the museum was announced. The competition was won in February 2007 by Swiss architect Christian Kerez. It was chosen from 109 designs.The building of about 30,000 square meters was to be completed from 2012-2016 on the northern side of Parade Square beside Marszałkowska Street (previously occupied by a marketplace).In April, 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz and Christian Kerez signed a contract for the design of the museum. In summer 2008, Warsaw authorities decided to change the functional program and project of the inside of the building, and as a result, the project had undergone significant change, and design work had to be significantly extended. The final concept of the building was to have been presented in the summer of 2010. However, in May 2012, the City terminated the contract with Christian Kerez.At the same time it was decided that for the next three years the temporary location for the museum would be in Pańska Street, off the nearby main thoroughfare Emilii Plater.Current plans are to open the new custom-built museum in 2019. Plans for the museumThe museum will present the achievements and changes in Polish art of the twentieth and twenty-first century in an international context, create an art collection, present significant phenomena in the field of visual arts, film, theater and music, as well as support exceptionally talented artists.The museum will be a platform for dialogue between tradition and the new currents, which will allow for constant renewal of the historical memory of the "near" and to negotiate the changing social hierarchy of values in the wider culture.The museum - open for art in the broadest sense - is geared to interact with many diverse circles of Polish society, and to communicate with the public and international artistic circles.The collection, exhibition time, as well as a multimedia program will be supported by information and education addressed to a number of social and age groups, with particular emphasis on high schools and universities.The activities of the museum will serve to raise the level of knowledge and interest in the arts with references to tradition and history, and will develop and promote international cooperation with a view to forming a European cultural identity. This will apply to both the new museum and artistic and scientific exchanges with artists and people working in the area of culture - art historians, exhibitions curators, art critics - as well as participation in international museum artwork circuits and projects in the area of contemporary culture. Thanks to its unique location and historical surroundings the museum will be particularly try to stimulate intercultural dialogue.The attractiveness of the building, combined with a favorable location and dynamics of the museum will be used to create a space for recreation and leisure for residents of and visitors to the city of Warsaw. See also The Zachęta National Gallery of Art The Centre for Contemporary Art
Military Assistance Advisory Group and Museum of Modern Art, WarsawMilitary Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for American military advisers sent to other countries to assist in the training of conventional armed forces and facilitate military aid. Although numerous MAAG's operated around the world throughout the 1940s-1970's, the most famous MAAG's were those active in Southeast Asia before and during the Vietnam War. Typically, the personnel of MAAG's were considered to be technical staff attached to, and enjoying the privileges of, the US diplomatic mission a country. Though the term is not as widespread as it once was, the functions performed by MAAG's continue to be performed by successor organizations attached to embassies, often called United States Military Groups (USMILGP or MILGRP). The term MAAG may still occasionally be used for such organizations helping promote military partnerships with several Latin American countries such as Peru and the Dominican Republic as well as in African countries such as Liberia.Contents 1 MAAG, Indochina; MAAG, Vietnam 2 MAAG Thailand 3 MAAG Laos 4 MAAG Cambodia 5 MAAG Republic of China 6 References 6.1 Works Cited 7 External linksMAAG, Indochina; MAAG, Vietnam Emblem of MAAG VietnamIn September 1950, US President Harry Truman sent the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to Vietnam to assist the French in the First Indochina War. The President claimed they were not sent as combat troops, but to supervise the use of $10 million worth of US military equipment to support the French in their effort to fight the Viet Minh forces. By 1953, aid increased dramatically to $350 million to replace old military equipment owned by the French.The French Army however, was reluctant to take U.S. advice, and would not allow the Vietnamese army to be trained to use the new equipment, because it went against French policy. They were supposed to not only defeat enemy forces but to solidify themselves as a colonial power, and they could not do this with a Vietnamese Army. French commanders were so reluctant to accept advice that would weaken their time-honored colonial role that they got in the way of the various attempts by the MAAG to observe where the equipment was being sent and how it was being used. Eventually the French decided to cooperate, but at that point it was too late.In 1954 the commanding general of French forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, allowed the United States to send liaison officers to Vietnamese forces. But it was too late, because of the siege and fall of Dien Bien Phu in the spring. As stated by the Geneva Accords, France was forced to surrender the northern half of Vietnam and to withdraw from South Vietnam by April 1956.At a conference in Washington, D.C. on February 12, 1955 between officials of the U.S. State Department and the French Minister of Overseas Affairs, it was agreed that all U.S. aid would be funneled directly to South Vietnam and that all major military responsibilities would be transferred from the French to the MAAG under the command of Lieutenant General John O'Daniel. A problem arose however, because the French Expeditionary Force had to depart from South Vietnam in April 1956 pursuant to the Accords. After the French defeat, it was renamed the MAAG in 1955, as the United States became more deeply involved in what would come to be known as the Vietnam War.The next few years saw the rise of a Communist insurgency in South Vietnam, and President Diem looked increasingly to US military assistance to strengthen his position, albeit with certain reservations. Attacks on US military advisers in Vietnam became more frequent. On October 22, 1957, MAAG and USIS installations in Saigon were bombed, injuring US military advisers. In the summer of 1959, Communist guerrillas staged an attack on a Vietnamese military base in Bien Hoa, killing and wounding several MAAG personnel. During this time, American advisers were not put in high ranking positions, and President Diem was reluctant to allow American advisers into Vietnamese tactical units. He was afraid that the United States would gain control or influence over his forces if Americans got into the ranks of the army. The first signs that his position was beginning to shift came in 1960, when the number of official US military advisers in the country was increased from 327 to 685 at the request of the South Vietnamese government. By 1961, communist guerrillas were becoming stronger and more active. This increased enemy contacts in size and intensity throughout South Vietnam. At this point, Diem was under pressure from US authorities to liberalize his regime and implement reforms. Although key elements in the US administration were resisting his requests for increased military funding and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) troop ceilings, MAAG played a significant role in advocating for a greater US presence in the country. Throughout this period relations between the MAAG and Diem were described as "excellent", even through the advisers were doubtful of his ability to hold off the insurgency.Newly elected President John F. Kennedy agreed with MAAG's calls for increases in ARVN troop levels and the U.S. military commitment in both equipment and men. In response, Kennedy provided $28.4 million in funding for ARVN, and overall military aid increased from $50 million per year to $144 million in 1961. In the first year of the Kennedy administration, MAAG worked closely with administration officials, USOM, and the US Information Service to develop a counterinsurgency plan (CIP). The CIP's main initiatives included the strengthening of ARVN to combat the Communist insurgency, which had the corollary effect of strengthening Diem's political position. At the same time President Diem agreed to the assignment of advisers to battalion level, significantly increasing the number of advisers; from 746 in 1961 to over 3,400 before MAAG was placed under U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) and renamed the Field Advisory Element, Vietnam. At the peak of the war in 1968, 9,430 Army personnel acted as advisors down to the district and battalion level to train, advise and mentor the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps, Republic of Vietnam Navy and the Vietnam Air Force.MAAG, Indochina had three commanders: Brig.Gen. Francis G. Brink, October 1950-August 1952; Maj.Gen. Thomas J. H. Trapnell, August 1952-April 1954; and Lt. Gen. John W. O'Daniel, April 1954-November 1955. MAAG, Vietnam was commanded by Lt.Gen. Samuel T. Williams, November 1955-September 1960; Lt.Gen. Lionel C. McGarr, September 1960-July 1962; and Maj.Gen. Charles J. Timmes, July 1962-May 1964. MAAG ThailandAs part of the military outreach of the USA to friendly countries in Southeast Asia, a MAAG was established in Bangkok, Thailand in September 1950. This is a US Military Service badge for the US Military Advisory and Assistance Group in ThailandIt was replaced by the Joint US Military Advisory Group Thailand (JUSMAGTHAI) in September 1953, which operates until today. MAAG LaosMAAG Laos was established in 1961 to replace the Programs Evaluation Office in its support of the Royal Lao Army's fight against the communist Pathet Lao. On July 23, 1962, several interested countries agreed in Geneva to guarantee the neutrality and independence of Laos. As such, the US removed the MAAG, replacing it with a "Requirements Office", which served as a convenient cover for the CIA activities. Military advisers thereafter became Army (ARMA) and Air Force Attachés (AIRA) to the U.S. Embassy in Vientiane under "Project White Star" Mobile Training Teams (later renamed "Project 404").One of MAAG Laos' commanders was Reuben Tucker. MAAG CambodiaMAAG Cambodia was established on June 4, 1955, pursuant to the United States-Royal Government of Cambodia agreement of May 16, 1955. This agreement included the introduction of high-ranking US military personnel to advise the Cambodian armed forces as non-combatants. The advisory group was staffed mainly by army personnel, with smaller contingents of navy and air force personnel.As Cambodia's leadership took an official policy of neutrality in the Cold War, MAAG Cambodia's involvement in the country was terminated on November 20, 1963 by General Order 6, MAAG Cambodia, following the Cambodian government's cancellation of all U.S. aid. MAAG Republic of ChinaIn Taiwan, U.S. Military Advisory Group generally refers to the United States Armed Forces in the Republic of China (Taiwan) from April 1951 to December 1978. The commander of these forces was U.S. Major General William C. Chase until his retirement in 1955 at which time he was succeeded by U.S. Brigadier General Lester BorkAmerican military advisers were tasked with providing arms and military advice, assisting with Taiwanese military training, implementation of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, maintaining military contacts, and monitoring Republic of China forces. In 1957 there were 10,000 Americans in Taiwan, the great majority being CIA and military personnel and their families.Since 1979, the site of MAAG headquarters in Taipei has been occupied by American Institute in Taiwan/Taipei branch, which is scheduled to move to a new office complex in 2015.
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