Mimi Abramovitz and Gradiconus

Mimi Abramovitz is an American author, educator and activist. Abramovitz's work focuses on civil and welfare rights of those living in the United States, especially women.

Contents 1 Life and education 2 Career 3 Awards and honors 4 Selected works 5 References 6 External links

Life and education

Abramovitz completed her undergraduate work at the University of Michigan, where she earned a B.A. in Sociology in 1963. She went on to obtain her Master's degree in social work in 1967 and her Ph.D in social work from Columbia University in 1981. Career

Abramovitz moved to New Haven, Connecticut, where she became active in an existing organization and went on co-found other organizations. She became active in the American Independent Movement, an organization who summarizes their goal, "The American Independent Movement (AIM) has been working since 1966 to get people together against the rich, powerful few who run New Haven and the whole country". She'd also go on, while in New Haven, to co-found with other women, New Haven Women's Liberation, an organization that allowed her to focus on welfare rights, organize anti-war rallies in Washington, D.C., and the unionization of Yale University clerical workers. Abramovitz would begin to teach social welfare policy at the Hunter College.

Abramovitz, along with Jan Poppendeick and Melinda Lackey created a course at Hunter College called the Community Leadership course, which consists of both education about the history of activism and training in relevant skills. Then students use these skills in the community, aided by a student organization, the Welfare Rights Initiative(WRI), which was also co-founded by an Abramovitz,Poppendeick, and Lackey. The WRI describes itself as a "grassroots student activist and community leadership training organization" whose mission is to train and support "students who have firsthand experience of poverty to effectively promote access to education for all".

Abramovitz serves as the Bertha Capen Reynolds Professor of Social Policy and as the department chair Social Welfare Policy at Hunter College School of Social Work Awards and honors Outstanding Book award (1977) by the Gustavus Myers Center For the Study of Human Rights, for her book Under Attack, Fighting Back: Women and Welfare in the United States. Feminist Scholarship Award (2004) by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). Distinguished Recent Contributions in Social Work Education Award (2004) awarded by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Selected works Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Cambridge: South End Press (1999). ISBN 0-89608-551-1 Under Attack, Fighting Back: Women and Welfare in the United States. New York: Monthly Review Press (2000). ISBN 1-58367-008-4 with Sandra Morgen. Taxes Are a Woman's Issue: Reframing the Debate. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY (2006). ISBN 1-55861-522-9 with Joel Blau. The Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2010). ISBN 0-19-538526-8

Gradiconus and Mimi Abramovitz

Gradiconus is a proposed genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. This genus currently (November 2011) is still treated by some experts as an "alternative representation" of this group of species.

When the "alternative representations" are not used, this group of species is instead still placed in the Linnaean genus Conus.

Contents 1 Distinguishing characteristics 2 Species list 3 Significance of "alternative representation" 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Distinguishing characteristics

The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Gradiconus from Conus in the following ways: Genus Conus sensu stricto Linnaeus, 1758 Shell characters (living and fossil species) The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum. The shoulder of the shell is usually nodulose and the protoconch is usually multispiral. Markings often include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars. Radular tooth (not known for fossil species) The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, and lacks a basal spur. Geographical distribution These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Feeding habits These species eat other gastropods including cones. Genus Gradiconus da Motta, 1991 Shell characters (living and fossil species) The shell is turbinate in shape. The protoconch is paucispiral, cords are either absent or disappear in the early postnuclear whorls. The anal notch is deep. The shell may be ornamented with hemispherical nodules undulating along the shoulder angle in the early postnuclear whorls, and ridges may persist or die out on the body whorl. The color pattern consists of dots or dashes in spiral lines and/or longitudinal markings. The periostracum is tufted or has a fringe along the shoulder angle, and the operculum is small to minute. Radular tooth (not known for fossil species) The anterior section of the radular tooth is roughly equal to the length of the posterior section, and the blade is more than half the length of the anterior section. A basal spur is present, the barb is short, and there is an internal terminating cusp. The radular tooth is serrated. Geographical distribution The species in this genus occur in the West Atlantic and Eastern Pacific regions. Feeding habits These cone snails are vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete worms. Species list

This list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) list. Species within the genus Gradiconus include: Gradiconus maya Petuch & Sargent, 2011 Gradiconus ostrinus Tucker & Tenorio, 2011 Gradiconus tortuganus Petuch & Sargent, 2011 Gradiconus nybakkeni Tenorio, Tucker & Chaney, 2012 Gradiconus skoglundae Tenorio, Tucker & Chaney, 2012

The following species names are recognized as "alternate representations" (see full explanation below) in contrast to the traditional system, which uses the genus Conus for all species in the family: Gradiconus anabathrum (Crosse, 1865) is equivalent to Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865 Gradiconus bayeri (Petuch, 1987) is equivalent to Conus bayeri Petuch, 1987 Gradiconus brunneofilaris (Petuch, 1990) is equivalent to Conus brunneofilaris Petuch, 1990 Gradiconus burryae (Clench, 1942) is equivalent to Conus burryae Clench, 1942 Gradiconus ceruttii (Cargile, 1997) is equivalent to Conus ceruttii Cargile, 1997 Gradiconus cingulatus (Lamarck, 1810) is equivalent to Conus cingulatus Lamarck, 1810 Gradiconus dispar (G.B. Sowerby I, 1833) is equivalent to Conus dispar G.B. Sowerby I, 1833 Gradiconus flavescens (G.B. Sowerby I, 1834) is equivalent to Conus flavescens G.B. Sowerby I, 1834 Gradiconus garciai (da Motta, 1982) is equivalent to Conus garciai da Motta, 1982 Gradiconus gradatus (Wood, 1828) is equivalent to Conus gradatus Wood, 1828 Gradiconus monilifer (Broderip, 1833) is equivalent to Conus monilifer Broderip, 1833 Gradiconus paulae (Petuch, 1988) is equivalent to Conus paulae Petuch, 1988 Gradiconus philippii (Kiener, 1845) is equivalent to Conus philippii Kiener, 1845 Gradiconus recurvus (Broderip, 1833) is equivalent to Conus recurvus Broderip, 1833 Gradiconus regularis (G.B. Sowerby I, 1833) is equivalent to Conus regularis G.B. Sowerby I, 1833 Gradiconus rosemaryae (Petuch, 1990) is equivalent to Conus rosemaryae Petuch, 1990 Gradiconus scalaris (Valenciennes, 1832) is equivalent to Conus scalaris Valenciennes, 1832 Gradiconus scalarissimus (da Motta, 1988) is equivalent to Conus scalarissimus da Motta, 1988 Gradiconus sennottorum (Rehder & Abbott, 1951) is equivalent to Conus sennottorum Rehder & Abbott, 1951 Gradiconus sunderlandi (Petuch, 1987) is equivalent to Conus sunderlandi Petuch, 1987 Significance of "alternative representation"

Prior to 2009, all species within the family Conidae were placed in one genus, Conus. In 2009 however, J.K. Tucker and M.J. Tenorio proposed a classification system for the over 600 recognized species that were in the family. Their classification proposed 3 distinct families and 82 genera for the living species of cone snails. This classification was based upon shell morphology, radular differences, anatomy, physiology, cladistics, with comparisons to molecular (DNA) studies. Published accounts of genera within the Conidae that include the genus Gradiconus include J.K. Tucker & M.J. Tenorio (2009), and Bouchet et al. (2011).

Testing in order to try to understand the molecular phylogeny of the Conidae was initially begun by Christopher Meyer and Alan Kohn, and is continuing, particularly with the advent of nuclear DNA testing in addition to mDNA testing.

However, in 2011, some experts still prefer to use the traditional classification, where all species are placed in Conus within the single family Conidae: for example, according to the current November 2011 version of the World Register of Marine Species, all species within the family Conidae are in the genus Conus. The binomial names of species in the 82 cone snail genera listed in Tucker & Tenorio 2009 are recognized by the World Register of Marine Species as "alternative representations." Debate within the scientific community regarding this issue continues, and additional molecular phylogeny studies are being carried out in an attempt to clarify the issue.
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